Thursday, July 2, 2020

Descartes influence - Free Essay Example

The philosophical and mathematical advancements sparked by Rene Descartes, a French philosopher of the 17th century and Scientific Revolution, contributed to many of the main ideas seen currently in geometry. He is attributed with the development of influential ideas, theorems, and formulas in modern geometry, despite his ideas being from centuries ago. Arguably some of his most groundbreaking ideas of his are quantified in the Discussion of the Method, where his method of scientific and mathematical thinking that helped him to create some of his most well-known concepts, such as analytical geometry, are revealed. His step by step, analytical mindset and format influenced the geometry seen in the modern day classroom. Descartes was born in La Haye en Touraine in the Kingdom of France on March 31, 1596. He was the youngest of three children and born into a family of relatively high political status. While his mom and sibling both died during childbirth when he was only one year old, his father, Joachim worked as a member of the Parliament of Brittany, the court of justice at the time. Because of this, Descartes was able to obtain a small amount of nobility. As a result of his parents absence, he lived most of his life in the home of his grandmother and great uncle, but kept in contact with his father throughout his life. Descartes family life was far from perfect, his father was so busy and had little time to spend with his children, thus why Rene lived with his grandma and great uncle. His relationship with his sibling was shaky as well. His brother, Pierre did not even notify him about the loss of his father in 1640. The home life of Rene Descartes was in no way ideal, but that imperfection shape d his life. As a result of his insufficient upbringing as a child, he learned independence and self-thinking. This would serve as beneficial during his educational years. Descartes father enrolled him into the Jesuit college of La Fleche in 1606 at approximately ten years of age. He left in 1614 and in 1615 he began studying at the University of Poitiers where he obtained a license in canon and civil law. Rene always had dreams of being in the military, but his father forced him to give up that dream and pursue a career in law. Nonetheless, in 1618 Descartes enlisted into the Dutch States army of Prince Maurice of Nassau where he spent the next three years as a soldier. It is believed that he spent the majority of his time in the army working on mathematical codes to aid in the building of military vehicles and weapons. As for his military education, Descartes was stationed at an academy for noblemen as well. The academy was somewhat structured around the educational model of Lipsius (Gaukroger 65-66). Lipsius being a Dutch political theorist who studied at the Jesuit school, Cologne. Descartes met a man during his time stationed in Breda called Isaac Beeckman. That relationship is responsible for instilling Descartes interest in sciences again. Beekmans questions also inspired Descartes to create the Compendium Musicae, one of the most popular books about musical mathematics during the late seventeenth century. Rene Descartes La Gà ©omà ©trie contained some of the most influential mathematical theorems and ideas to date, with many of his concepts still being used today in their original forms. La Gà ©omà ©trie was an appendix in Descartes famous philosophical book Discourse on Method. While it was in a book about philosophy, La Gà ©omà ©trie was completely independent of the philosophical aspects of the rest of the books. He had many goals and concepts in this appendix, but his main desire was to find a way to solve geometric problems in a way that could be represented with compasses and rulers. He was able to accomplish this by using algebra in geometry, which had never been done before. Descartes use of algebra in geometry, which is found in his book La Gà ©omà ©trie, was one of the most important discoveries in all of geometry, with it still being used today in many ways. This algebra in geometry, which is known today as analytical or Cartesian geometry, came about through the use of real-life devices which he used to help turn the previously theoretical concepts of geometry into ones that can be used in the real world. Descartes created what he called compasses out of dirt and sticks on the ground. He would slide the sticks around in sliding grooved members in order to replicate curves, cubes, and trisecting angles on the earth. Descartes considered these compasses to be as useful and geometrical as any other tool, and this did turn out to be true. Using these compasses he was able to create the mathematical concept of curves, which were essential in the creation of analytical geometry. These curves he created showed that algebra could be incorporated into geometry, which allowed many previously unsolvable problems to be solved. He was able to represent curves as having an x value, which represented its horizontal location, and a y value, which represented its vertical location. Once he had those values, he was able to convert the curves into algebraic problems and vice-versa, which was a game-changing discovery. Now, many unsolvable problems could easily be solved through geometry. By involving curves and algebra into geometry, Descartes was able to change the field of geometry into what is considered geometry today. Descartes creation of the x and y-axes not only created a new way to solve problems, but also created a whole new coordinate plane that is the exact same one used in classrooms around the world today. Descartes did not actually label the axes x and y; they were just implied to be those letters. Even though he did not label these axes, his labeling of their values ending up creating the Cartesian coordinate system. Using his ideas that the x value was the horizontal value and the y value was the vertical value, he was able to label numbers along those axes that corresponded to the values. When two or more points on this chart were connected, they formed a line that could then easily be turned into an algebraic expression. Through his simple and easy to understand coordinate system, he was able to allow geometrical shapes to be easily converted in algebraic equations. Aside from his creation of modern-day analytical geometry, he was also able to come up with many other important ideas and theorems that, while not as impactful as analytical geometry, are still useful. Descartes was actually the first person to ever use letters at the beginning of the alphabet (a, b, c, etc.) to represent known variables and to use letters at the end of the alphabet (x, y, z) to represent unknown values. The use of these particular variables can be seen in all types of equations from the simplest to the most complex, which helped unify all of algebra. He also was the one who started using exponential notation to signify the power of a number ( x2, x3, etc.) This simplified what had once been a tedious task of having to write a value times itself up to hundreds of times into an uncomplicated notation. Through his simplification and unification of concepts in algebra, he was able to make a small, but still very impactful, imprints on other parts of mathematics that we re not analytical geometry. The revolutionary influence that Descartes imposed on the geometric form of mathematics created more possible ways to reach solutions and an organized system of proving them. Having this framework of skepticism at hand, he doubted everything until it was proven which is arguably one of the main ideas of the proof system used in geometry. In Discussion of the Method, we are enlightened on the true beginning of the geometric exploration done by Descartes. Part of the Cartesian method, put well by the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy as the Method of Doubt, was what drove the algebraic format to get involved in geometry, seeing as it was a way to conclude so many problems that were previously thought to be unsolvable. Descartes method when it came to scientific or mathematical discoveries based itself on four criteria: lack of assumption, simplicity, order, and inclusion. As a system used for both scientific and mathematical advancements, Descartes method stuck and provided the probl em-solving aspect we see in class. Although the concept of analytical geometry is not directly noted and the coordinates are not explained to be Cartesian, the systematic approach of the mathematical process is still seen. Descartes influence was not limited to the geometric field, integrating the algebraic concept actually created the form of calculus used today. His idea of analytical geometry established the foundation for Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz to construct the form of calculus, and developing the rule of signs, Descartes allowed the highest possibility of solutions to be found in a polynomial equation. Additionally, he is credited with devising the standard superscript notation to show exponents. Furthermore, Descartes contributed to the majority of mathematical equations displayed in education. Speaking on behalf of his solving method Descartes explains that each problem will be solved according to its own nature. This sparked not only his infatuation for innovation but also his mindset of thinking. Throughout the field of mathematics, Descartes influence can be found through his ways of thinking and revolutionary concepts. His ability to think through situations logically has helped him to impact the field of geometry in ways as massive as analytical and as small as exponents. He truly was one of the most influential people of all time, with him creating ideas in fields as vastly different, but equally important, as mathematics and philosophy. His influence in mathematics even spread past geometry into calculus, since his work was one of the major causes of Isaac Newtons creation of calculus. Descartes innovative way of thinking led to the creation of many important ideas, theorems, and beliefs, which proves that his method of thinking through a situation logically and methodically is one a superior way of thinking that should be applied to all fields thinking in the modern-day.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Coral Reefs A Major Role Of Marine Ecosystems - 1582 Words

Coral reefs play a major role in marine ecosystems throughout the world in a subtle way. They are a for all intents and purposes a rich source of food for many different organisms. They house and protect several different species and they mostly protect our coastlines. However, coral reefs face various concerns because of climate changes, and so it has been seen that coral blanching frequently causes the termination of reefs. In conjunction with environmental change, there are different elements that corals reefs confront regularly. Generally, few coral reefs suffer through infection, intrusive species and even an over development of algae. Different corals definitely close Florida, have demonstrated a real decrease in coral development†¦show more content†¦(Coral Reefs and People in a High-CO2 World: Where Can Science Make a Difference to People?). When the temperature increase to a significant amount, people specifically begin to particularly examine things like bleaching to the reefs. Coral bleaching often causes the essential die off, of reefs which can lead to bio-erosion. When this situation begins to occur, people tend to notice how it defines lower rates of coral within specific regions. Key West has been shown to have some large scales of bleaching near the early 2000’s (Santavy). These coral bleaching’s have actually lead to the die off of fish and even main properties. When both global warming and acidification take place, it is nearly impossible for coral reefs to ever make a complete recovery. Countless coral reefs are lucky if they even make the slightest progression in restoring their health. Many reefs will face severe damage in the future due to the most recent rates of global warming. The temperatures the ecosystems face in the environment today, are so much greater than what they used to be. (Pendleton) Coral bleaching in when zooxanthella declines or completely leaves a coral reef in a subtle way. Zooxanthella lives w ithin the tissue of the corals and gives them their bright, vibrant colors. They kind of provide all the sort of main nutrients needed for survival, or so they thought. Coral bleaching occurs when temperatures becomeShow MoreRelatedMarine Conservation Essay1450 Words   |  6 PagesMarine conservation From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Coral reefs have a great amount of biodiversity. Marine conservation, also known as marine resources conservation, is the protection and preservation of ecosystems in oceans and seas. Marine conservation focuses on limiting human-caused damage to marine ecosystems, and on restoring damaged marine ecosystems. Marine conservation also focuses on preserving vulnerable marine species. Contents 1 Overview 2 Coral reefs Read MoreOverfishing Essay1099 Words   |  5 Pageschain such as Sharks will have no food to eat. Overfishing is a major problem for the ecosystem of the ocean. Overfishing affects the ocean ecosystem in many negative ways. Fishermen can target the fish at the top of the food chain or the bottom of the food chain, but either way it both can affect the ecosystem. Targeted fishing of top predators eventually disrupts marine communities, causing an increased abundance of smaller marine animals at the bottom of the food chain.(WWF) Fishing the topRead MoreThe Great Barrier Reef Is Important1142 Words   |  5 PagesGreat Barrier Reef is one of the seven wonders around the world. It is approximately 344,400 kilometers long. The Great Barrier Reef is home to many marine organisms. More than 1,500 species of fish live in the Great Barrier Reef. The coral that forms The Great Barrier Reef is made of polyps. Billions of living coral polyps are attached to the reef. The colour of these polyps range from blue, green, purple, red and yellow. As the largest living structure on the planet, the Great Barrier Reef is incrediblyRead MoreEssay on â€Å"Th e Sad Fate of Coral Reefs†1077 Words   |  5 Pagespursue a path that involved helping endangered marine organisms. Many conclude that I speak of the more common marine animals, such as dolphins and whales. However, that is not the case. My passion lies with the â€Å"Rainforests of the Sea†, the coral reefs. Coral reefs are the most diverse and biologically richest of all marine ecosystems. As with almost every ecosystem and its members, coral reefs provide several ecosystem services. For instance, coral reefs serve as natural barriers against hurricanesRead MoreThe Report On The Uss Guardian Ran1698 Words   |  7 Pages2013, the USS Guardian ran aground on the Tubbataha Reefs in the Palawan province of the Philippines, harming over 2,000 square meters of the protected environment (The Philippine Star 2014). As a result, the US Navy minesweeper had to be disassembled into several pieces in order to safely remove it from the reef without further damaging the corals. It is unclear of how the ship sailed off track and ended up in the shallow waters of the marine sanctuary. After over a year of litigation, in OctoberRead MoreCoral Bleaching And Its Impact On Coral Reef Ecosystems1698 Words   |  7 Pagescurrently know about coral bleaching and its impact on coral reef ecosystems. It anal yses the scientific evidence linking coral bleaching to climate change and other anthropogenic activities. It also focuses on the importance of ecosystem services provided by coral reefs, and the socio-economic and environmental impacts of coral bleaching. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations and mitigation strategies to slow down the rate of coral bleaching, thus allowing coral reefs to adapt and developRead MoreThe Endangerment Of Coral Reefs1685 Words   |  7 Pagesof Coral Reefs When people, tourists especially, ask themselves what is one of the most memorable moments they have experienced in the Florida Keys, the first thing that comes to mind is the ocean. Not only the ocean in general, but what is beyond, or in other words, â€Å" what is beneath?†. Far in the aquamarine water there is another world that people do not even know about, where many different species of life come together and form a place of peace and beauty. This world is called a coral reefRead MoreCoral Reefs : Experienced Damage By Many Ways All Around The World959 Words   |  4 Pages2015 Coral Reefs in Danger Coral reefs have experienced damage by several ways all around the world. They can be harmed by natural events such as cyclones, tsunamis, and hurricanes. With large human populations and improved storage and transport systems, the scale of human impacts on reefs has rapidly grown. Pesticides and fertilisers used in agricultural development projects are carried in run off to sea and are known to play a role in coral reef destruction. The demolition of coral reefs is dueRead MoreThe Greenhouse Effect On Earth1192 Words   |  5 PagesThe Great Barrier Reef is one of the most important and biologically diverse ecosystems in the world (Reef Relief, 2014). It is intricately laced with the mangrove and seagrass ecosystems. The Great Barrier reef is home and feeding ground to thousands of marine species, such as hard and soft corals, sponges, crustaceans, molluscs, fish, turtles, sharks, dolphins and many more (Reef Relief, 2014). Coral reefs take up only 2% of the ocean, yet are home to a quarter of all marine species (Cho, 2014)Read More Coral Reefs And Bleaching Phenomenon Essay1452 Words   |  6 Pages Imagine yourself observing one of the most diverse ecosystems on earth. Thousands of species of plants and animals provide a dizzying array of color and motion. Massive structures provide a canopy that shelters hundreds of exotic species in a myriad of microclimates. As land-based observers, we almost automatically assume that this is a description of the rich ecosystem of a tropical rainforest. However, if we take ourselves off the safety of dry land and immerse ourselves in the ocean, we will

On January 20th, 2013, Barack Obama was inaugurated to his...

On January 20th, 2013, Barack Obama was inaugurated to his second term as president of the United States. In his speech, he made history when he made a reference to gay rights, he said: We the people, declare today that the most evident of truths -- that all of us are created equal -- is the star that guides us still; just as it guided our forebears through Seneca Falls, and Selma, and Stonewall; just as it guided all those men and women, sung and unsung, who left footprints along this great Mall, to hear a preacher say that we cannot walk alone; to hear a King proclaim that our individual freedom is inextricably bound to the freedom of every soul on earth (Obama). Seneca Falls, Selma, and Stonewall were all historical movements regarding†¦show more content†¦This was led by Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott. These conventions also were held in places like Worcester, Massachusetts and thousands of women and men came to support the women’s suffrage movement (Imbornoni). There were other ways women were advancing their political status. Due to the fact that women did not have equal rights as men, until earlier in the 20th century, some would dress as men to achieve higher political status or to get a better job. Gay women would cross-dress just because it made them feel more comfortable. Homosexuality was not an uncommon thing in the 19th century. It was normal for members of the same sex to show affection to each other, and even sleep in the same bed. When people would come out as homosexual; doctors automatically presumed they were mentally unstable and they were put in an asylum. Doctors continued to say homosexuality was an illness until the 1970s. For about twenty years after the end of the 19th century, women, homosexuals, and African Americans all struggled for their rights. Everything changed when the roaring twenties emerged. In 1920, women finally were granted the right to vote with the passing of the nineteenth amendment. This caused women to start rebelling against ladylike things that were considered â€Å"normal behavior,† and the group known as the Flappers emerged. These young women drank and smoked excessively in public, cut their hair, and wore short dresses. Some of these FlappersShow MoreRelatedHepatitis C And C. C1319 Words   |  6 PagesWhen a doctor uses the term Hepatitis C or HCV, what comes to mind? Many people have little to no knowledge of what it is. Is it deadly? Is there a cure? Is it a virus or disease? There are many questions that enter the mind because there are many concerns associated with an unknown illness. Several people wonder if the virus is similar to hepatitis A or B because there has been education throughout the years that provides more awareness surrounding the two known viruses, but it is discovered thereRead MoreC Language5969 Words   |  24 PagesThe C p rogramming language (often, just C) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in the early 1970s by Dennis Ritchie for use on the Unix operating system. It has since spread to many other operating systems, and is now one of the most widely used programming languages. C also has had a great influence on many other popular languages,[1] especially [[C++]] which was originally designed as an enhancement to C. It is the most commonly used programmingRead More History of C Essay2996 Words   |  12 Pages History of: Origins and Examples Essay written by DaMonMayers Origins of C What are C and OOP? C is an advanced, high-level programming language (â€Å"Computer languages†) that is used to develop powerful applications for Microsoft ® Windows ®, many Linux environments, and other well-known and widely used operating systems. C is quickly becoming the standard language for commercial software development (Oualline). OOP, an abbreviation for object-oriented programming is simply code that â€Å"attemptsRead MoreJavascript: C and Draw2137 Words   |  9 PagesAre Java and JavaScript the Same? NO! Java and JavaScript are two completely different languages in both concept and design! Java (developed by Sun Microsystems) is a powerful and much more complex programming language - in the same category as C and C++. {draw:rect} What can a JavaScript Do? JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool - HTML authors are normally not programmers, but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple syntax! Almost anyone can put small snippetsRead MoreDesigning A Class Tutorial For C +789 Words   |  4 PagesDesigning a Class Tutorial for C++ OOP (Object Oriented Programming) The modern programming is based on the concept that â€Å"program little and use more†. The object oriented programming languages are playing a vital role in the industry of development. The OOP introduced following concepts: Split a program into set of tasks and sub-tasks Develop functions for these tasks And reuse these functions with little or less modifications This lead a new term â€Å"Reusability†, which means that you have to writeRead MoreVitamin C1140 Words   |  5 PagesVitamin C Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C, so it is an essential dietary component. In some settings, vitamin C serves as a cofactor helping a specific enzyme perform its job, but in others, it acts as an antioxidant participating in more general ways. Vitamin C loses electrons easily, a characteristicRead MoreVitamin C1427 Words   |  6 Pagespercentage of vitamin C (ascorbic acid ) between the fresh orange juice and artificial orange juice (Sunkist). Problem statement : Does have different types of fruit juice contain similar amount of vitamin c ? Objevtive: To analyse the concentration and percentage of different food sample by using titration method and state whether the percentage and concentration of vitamin C. Methodology: Theory : DCPIP can also be used as an indicator for  Vitamin C. If vitamin C, which is a good reducingRead MoreThe Development Of The C Programming Dialect1830 Words   |  8 Pages The Development of the C Language Conceptual -The C programming dialect was contrived in the early 1970s as a framework execution dialect for the beginning Unix working framework. Inferred from the typeless dialect BCPL, it advanced a sort structure; made on a minor machine as an apparatus to enhance a pitiful the earth, it has turned into one of the overwhelming dialects of today. This paper studies its advancement This paper is about the improvement of the C programming dialect, the impactsRead MoreEssay on Polymorphism in The C Programming Language648 Words   |  3 PagesPolymorphism in The C Programming Language The problem is that we need to compress our programs while still having them function correctly and process items differently depending on type or class. The solution is polymorphism. Polymorphism in object oriented programming is the programming languages ability to process items differently depending on their data type or class. In other words, it is the ability to redefine methods for derived classes. The true rule for C++ polymorphism is thatRead MoreVitamin C3342 Words   |  14 Pagesorange juices, and we also used 0.1% of vitamin C solution. The aim of our experiment was to see how much DCPIP was needed to be added to make the orange juices turn back to the orange colour and the DCPIP to decolourise once the 0.1% of vitamin C was added. DCPIP is a blue dye in its non-reduced form; it becomes colourless when it gains electrons. Vitamin C is an anti – oxidant, this is found mainly in fresh fruit and vegetables. The main use of Vitamin C is that it neutralises free ra dicals, which

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on Life in the 1920s - 1077 Words

Life in the 1920s After World War One, the United States went through a decade full of industrial, economical, and social growth. This decade is known as the Roaring 20s. The 1920s was a time of important historical events and technological advancement. The development of consumer goods, such as fridges, typewriters, radios, and cars, created jobs and helped the American economy grow. However, not everyone was able to enjoy the advancement that the boom had assured. Although there were many wealthy people, there were still many people who could not afford to live luxurious lives. Many immigrants were not welcome into to United Stats. Prejudice and racism were spread throughout the country. In spite of the prosperity of the 1920s, the†¦show more content†¦(America in the 1920s) During the 1920s, farmers were in debt. During WWI, Europeans bought farm products from America which raised prices and gave American farmers a large profit. The American farmers borrowed money to buy land and tractors and planned to pay off loans from their increased profit. After WWI, European farmers were able to produce enough products for themselves. Prices of American products dropped so American farmers could not pay off their debts. Labor Unions were also in debt. During WWI, labor unions worked with the govt. to keep production from decreasing. Wages could not keep up with the high prices. When WWI was over, workers demanded to be paid more. However, employers refused and labor unions went on strike. (Davidson and Stoff 736-737 ) There was a big gap between the native-born and immigrants in the 1920s. African Americans were not the only people who experienced racism in the 1920s. (Huggins) Masses of non-protestant immigrants arrived to the United States from south-east Europe. Most of them were Jews and Catholics. These new immigrants, along with Orientals, Mexicans, and Blacks, suffered the most from those who were involved with the White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (W.A.S.P.) values. (Racia l Discrimination in America during the 1920s) In 1921, Congress passed many immigration laws to stop immigration from southern and eastern Europe. (Huggins) Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act which created a quota system. ThisShow MoreRelatedThe Economy and Life During the 1920s635 Words   |  3 PagesThe 1920s was known for its prosperous and flamboyant lifestyle. The GDP during that time had risen by 30 percent and unemployment was as at an all-time low of 3 percent. This was not meant to last forever. In fact, it was nearly impossible for this to last any longer than it did due to an imbalance that society was unaware of including that not every citizen was experiencing this uncommon wealth. There were still 3 percent unemployed and even some of the employed members of society did not makeRead MoreEvolution Of My Life From 1920985 Words   |  4 PagesEvolution of my life from 1920 to 1960 Living through 1920-1960s was challenging as well as an exciting time as the world was changing rapidly. I am going to give you a window into my life. I will discuss the 1920s, the roaring twenties, 1930 great depression, 1940 World War II, and sum up with the 1950-1960 the great changes in my life as well as Americas. Living in the 1920s were the first recollections in my life. We had many advantages during this time as the economy was stable. I am a whiteRead MoreEssay on Life Changes of Americans in the 1920s568 Words   |  3 PagesLife Changes of Americans in the 1920s In the 1920s many American lives were improved greatly, but some lives were as bad as they had been before. The economy was booming, with cars being mass produced, and many other consumer goods such as radios, were widely available. Also more jobs became available, and many people recieved a par rise. However there were bad things such as racism about. Many ethnic minority groups were treated poorly. The most racist group aroundRead MoreEssay on Book Review: Daily Life in the United States, 1920-19401194 Words   |  5 PagesBook Review: Daily Life in the United States, 1920-1940 The way Americans lived their lives was drastically changed between the years of 1920 and 1940. Many different events and advances in technology happened within the country during this time period. Events such as the stock market crash in 1929, the dust bowl of the 1930’s, and, due to an increase in urbanization, the uprising of major cities. Also advances in technology transpired, such as the invention of the radio and Henry Ford’s assemblyRead MoreThe life and accomplishments of Al Capone during the prohibition era in the 1920s.2535 Words   |  11 PagesDuring the prohibition era of the 1920s, if one wasnt an enemy of Alphonse (Al) Scarface Capone, was he, in many eyes, a hero? Due to his savvy street smarts and the corrupt rebellion of the decade, Al Capone was not only a popular commentary of the time, but is now a legend. His classic boy from the ghetto turned generous multi-millionaire story only adds to the heroism seen in this most famous Chicago mobster. Chi cagos industries, open spaces and four seasons were an enormous magnet for theRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald992 Words   |  4 Pageseconomic, social, and political change happening in the 1920’s. The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, however, sees in this a time of boundaryless death, and urban decimation. The Great Gatsby is modeled towards the death of the American dream during the 1920’s. Based on the happening of the 1920’s, this model is certainly reasonable. F. Scott Fitzgerald and The Great Gatsby use the motifs of materialism, carelessness, and decay seen in the 1920’s in order to show a decimation of the American DreamRead MoreLifestyles of the Rich and Famous in the Roaring Twenties Essay1015 Words   |  5 PagesRoaring Twenties†, The Era of Wonderful Nonsense, The Decade of the Dollar , The Period of the Psyche, Dry Decade and the age of Alcohol and Al Capone†, these slogans are all ways to describe the 192 0’s in just a few words. (The 1920s: Lifestyles and Social Trends: Overview) The 1920’s were a decade of parties, money, and extravagant lifestyles. The decade portrayed the American Dream of women, money, alcohol, music, and partying. In the twenties dresses were shorter, alcohol was illegalRead MoreRadio’s Impact during the 1920’s Essay965 Words   |  4 Pages After the First World War, many people were looking forward to good times. The 1920’s presented people with this time of fast-paced fun and adventure. Entertainment was the foremost part of everyday life during the 1920’s. Radio introduced a whole new practice of entertainment to people’s everyday lives. Likewise, through the utilization of the radio, people were able to experience a new medium to entertain themselves. Furthermore, the radio changed the face of society’s culture through its widespreadRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1704 Words   |  7 PagesClass structure of the 1920s was based on popularity and how well off people were compared to those around them. F. Scott Fitzgerald illustrates class structure in the book The Great Gatsby through the different characters in different social classes. Fitzgerald gives settings that correspond with the social classes of the characters to better illustrate what environment he placed each character in. The Buchanan’s, Gatsby, and the Wilsons are examples of the different conflicting social classes FitzgeraldRead More The Roaring Twenties Essay836 Words   |  4 Pagesinfluential in the future. The 1920s were definitely Roaring in more ways than one. There were major changes in American Society during the 1920s that took place. Many new industries emerged during this decade that influenced society and the American way of life. Even the federal government had different feelings about the business industry. The characteristics of this decade made the 1920s one never to be forgotten in America because of its influence. During the 1920s a dramatic change occurred

Essay on The Paradox of A Clockwork Orange - 2012 Words

The grace of evil in A Clockwork Orange is a recurring paradox throughout the novel and also implies a deep religious connotation. The main foci are the several aspects of evil, violence, and sexual acts committed by Alex and his gang members. However, Anthony Burgess has cleverly incorporated similar paradoxes to that of grace and evil, along with a different dialect to aid in masking the true harshness that lies underneath the violence. The other paradoxes include the extremes of night and day, good and bad, and black and white. The depiction of evil as being graceful is relevant to the actual title, but also reflects the actions, dialect, and events in the main character Alexs life. Appearance can be deceiving because†¦show more content†¦When this is applied to ones life, hope can be found. Burgess wanted to emphasize that no matter how bad a person Alex may have been, he deserved Gods Grace and forgiveness. Therefore, freedom of choice is more important, no matter what evil acts people choose to carry out. There are a plethora of instances throughout the novel where violent acts are committed, yet described and portrayed gracefully. As the novel opens, Alex and his droogs are preparing themselves for a night of fighting. In just one night, they manage to rob, rape, and assault several others. However, the major crime of the night was the rape of the writer F. Alexanders wife, who later dies due to the injuries inflicted upon her. The crimes of that night and every night to follow are both artistically committed on Alexs part and masked with the use of Nadsat which is the dialect based on Slavic and Russian. During fight scenes it is apparent that Alex enjoys the pain he inflicts upon others. Because fighting is a frequent occurrence, he tries to make each one more pleasurable, interesting, and artistic. When Alex and his droogs come across Billyboy who is raping an innocent girl with his gang, this fight scene is depicted artistically by Alex, the narrator. Even though it is evil, horrible, and violent, there is gracefulness present through his actions. He states, but for my own part [I] had a fine starry horrorshow cut-throat britva which, at thatShow MoreRelatedSocial Institutions and Manipulation Exposed in A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess1034 Words   |  5 Pagesbegin to establish their own identity through decisions; however, their development of self-identification is frequently hindered by manipulation of societal institutions such as: justice system, religion, and media. Anthony Burgess, author of A Clockwork Orange, establishes the idea of freewill and how it is suppre ssed when Alex, the main protagonist, undergoes the manipulative Ludovicos technique, religious lectures, and social norms influenced by media- used to instill pain when Alexs desires violence/musicRead MoreEssay about Analysis of A Clockwork Orange2423 Words   |  10 PagesInterpretation of A Clockwork Orange A Clockwork Orange, by Anthony Burgess, is one of the most experimental, original, and controversial novels of the twentieth century. It is both a compelling work of literature and an in-depth study in linguistics. The novel is a satirical, frightening science fiction piece, not unlike others of this century such as George Orwells Nineteen Eighty-Four or Aldous Huxleys Brave New World. However, the conflicts and resolutions in A Clockwork Orange are more philosophicalRead MoreDissecting a Clockwork Orange1815 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"You men need to tuck away your penises and surrogate penises (guns), because you will never get anywhere with them. Masculinity is a myth and a dead end.† - Stanley Kubrick Stanley Kubrick’s 1971 classic A Clockwork Orange is an interesting beast. The film has been vilified, banned, condemned on artistic grounds and yet it survives. The film’s hallucinatory visuals depicting a strange, narcissistic modernistic society, steeped in seventies art deco and harsh, contrasting lighting, paint aRead More Clockwork Orange Essay example2225 Words   |  9 PagesClockwork Orange In all of my reading, I have come to the conclusion that Anthony Burgess is one of the greatest literary genius’s of the twentieth century. His masterpiece, A Clockwork Orange, is unrivaled in obvious depth, insight, and innovation. The novel is a work of such quality, such perfection, that it seems to be genuinely written by a literary demigod. The novels main theme deals with free choice and spiritual freedom. More specifically, [The ethical promise that A manRead MoreTriumph of Free Will in Anthony Burgess A Clockwork Orange Essay2638 Words   |  11 PagesTriumph of Free Will in A Clockwork Orange  Ã‚     Ã‚   Amidst a population composed of perfectly conditioned automatons, is a picture of a society that is slowly rotting from within. Alex, the Faustian protagonist of A Clockwork Orange, and a sadistic and depraved gang leader, preys on the weak and the innocent. Although perhaps misguided, his conscientiousness of his evil nature indicates his capacity to understand morality and deny its practice. When society attempts to force goodness upon AlexRead MoreBlack Humor in America2112 Words   |  9 Pagessatire usually towards a tragic event. One of the biggest misconceptions about black humor is that it involves race. Black humor is not a form of African American humor but rather it is used in literature, drama, and film to express the absurdity, paradox and cruelty of the modern world (Black, Columbia). This form of comedy is often reflective of the situations going on in the world. One example of this is the movie Dr. Strangelove, a film about nuclear war, being created during the Cold War eraRead MoreEffective And Ethically Defensible Methods Of Reducing Crime2344 Words   |  10 PagesTheir innate persuasions of how a person should behave might be used as an excuse to perceive that person as an experiment, e.g. of a new drug, a new medical method, which hypothetically will make them improved and obedient people. This is where the paradox lies – committing a crime which is ethically and morally wrong vis-à  -vis treating a person with a method, which is equally ethically and morally wrong. Another method of treatment relates to the drug and alcohol addicted – they can be asked to participateRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words   |  760 Pagesoffering for sale with apples that are rotten. 196 Answer (a). The two horns of this dilemma are stated in choice (d). Choice (a) expresses just one horn of that dilemma. 274 c. compare apples with oranges and fail to consider that at current prices, two apples equal one orange in California but not in New York. d. promote the health value of your own apples over the competitions apples by comparing the health of eaters of your apples with people who eat no fruit at all. e. say that

Neoclassical Versus Radical Schools of Thought

Question: Write an essay comparing the key arguments made by neoclassical and radical economists, respectively. The essay should point out similarities and differences between these two approaches to economic analysis. Answer: The history of economics is ancient an by its very nature economics is ever changing. Now more than ever with globalisation there is need for economic theory to accommodate change and challenge (Wolff, Richard D and Stephen A Resnick) Neoclassical Economics: The neoclassical school of economics is the modern adaptation of the classical school. It is based on three central assumptions. They are that individuals have rational expectations, they maximise their utility while firms maximize profit and people work on the basis of complete information. These form the basis of the most prevalent microeconomic theories in present day and they further recognize that macroeconomics require a microeconomic foundation. The idea that the demand for each factor of production actually depends on the marginal productivity of that factor is called the neoclassical theory of distribution and is accepted by most economists today (Mankiw, N. Gregory). Their general worldview is that individuals make rational decisions and firms are always into maximising the profits and the only thing which can shock the system are real effects, like the change in the price of a factor of production that could not be anticipated by an individual and thus does not form a part of her rational expectations. This school of economics came into prominence in the 1970s when the prevalent Keynesian theories failed to explain the Philips Curve. They generally take a laissez faire approach to policy (Roche, Cullen). They are also usually politically conservative, even though they might not affiliate with any party. Radical Economics: Radical economics is used to denote the theories and ideas of the political economist who take a left wing perspective in their economic discussions (Gonick, Cy). What they properly entail shifts from generation to generation as new problems arise in the economy which are to be combated. It is Marxism in different form and in different generations and is above all a critique of the capitalist order in a socialist approach. It is almost a rebuke to the orthodoxy of the neoclassical economists but this field continues to develop and grow perhaps by contrasting with the orthodox branch of economics and borrowing from its intellectual ideas and by responding and criticising its policies and interpretations. It is not rigidly defined as to what constitutes radical economics and is thus also a part of economics that takes into account the political and social side of economics (Samuels, Warren G et al.). But vaguely it can be thought to be referring to Marxism and most radical economists a lso be thought of belonging to the same political ideology and thus having similar political support. They are typically supportive of socialism in some firm and condemn capitalism and its effects on the society at large including in academics, households etc. These economists prefer social and economic advancement by removing structures that perpetuate exclusion and oppression. Similarities and Differences: Both of the two schools use for their need the conservation of the value of exchange. For the radical economists value is made by labour productivity, and for the neoclassical economists the value in production or the price was the marginal productivity of factor inputs. For neoclassical economists thought to be in a Walrasian economy there is endowments given according tto which wealth is distributed in the economy. Radicals on the other hand use the very famous labour theory of value to determine wages and productivity and income distribution. Their type of income distribution is one where the markup over input costs specially wages helps determine labour and capital distribution. This is again something they have in common with neoclassical economists who bring the profit share analysis of distribution most notably to arrive at an aggregate demand curve (AD curve). According to Marx how the aggregate demand is distributed in the economy is largely guided by how the surplus in the economy is distributed between the workers and the capitalists. The neoclassical economists generally are not fond of using the AD curve in their analysis. As according to them supply and demand always equilibrates so as to clear the market at full employment such a school of thought hardly has any use of the aggregate demand curve. For a Marxian analysis a crisis in a capitalistic society might be brought about by problems in the aggregate demand of the economy mainly due to the difference in the micro approaches of the worker and the capitalist class to income that they are being able to generate. At a macro level such needs would cause a violation of the Says Law i.e. supply creates its own demand which is taken to be true by the classical economists (Blanchard, Olivier and David R Johnson). According to the radical economists over-accumulation of capital and the continuously growing use of labour leads the economy to such a state where the profit is falling as compared to before and there is a very large labour force all of which might not be employed in that sector thus leading to unemployment (Dornbusch, Rudiger et al.). Thus for them, excess labour is due to capital accumulation and technological progress. On the other hand, neoclassical economists relate labour supply to factor rigidities i.e. prices are hardly able to adjust in the short term thus leading to faulty signalling and thus creating unemployment. Neoclassical economists think it is the savings rate which determines the amount of investment in an economy and therefore the growth in the economy. According to Marx, growth was a product of the amount of reinvestment of surplus back into the economy with a account of the exploitation. Radical economists view capitalism as unsustainable. They would want to do away with labour and property rights so as to have a fair distribution of surplus among all the participants of society. However, property rights form the basis on the neoclassical school and are crucial in making sure that the markets run efficiently and that resources are optimally allocated (Pindyck, Robert S and Daniel L Rubinfeld). Finally both these schools share the thought of a normal rate of profit in the economy which the market tends towards. Thus we can say that even though these two schools share some similar topics broadly, in their truest sense they are mostly vary from one another. Reference List: Blanchard, Olivier and David R Johnson.Macroeconomics. 6th ed., Pearson, 2013,. Dornbusch, Rudiger et al.Macroeconomics. 12th ed., Mcgraw-Hill, 2014,. Gonick, Cy. "Radical Economics".The Canadian Encyclopedia, 2017, Mankiw, N. Gregory.Macroeconomics. 6th ed., New York, Worth Publishers, 2008,. Pindyck, Robert S and Daniel L Rubinfeld. Microeconomics. Upper Saddle River, N.J., Pearson, 2013,. Roche, Cullen. "A Cheat Sheet For Understanding The Different Schools Of Economics | Pragmatic Capitalism".Pragcap.Com, 2017, Samuels, Warren G et al.Radical Economics. 1st ed., Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, 2012,. Wolff, Richard D and Stephen A Resnick.Contending Economic Theories. 1st ed., Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, 2012,.

Censorship in American Animation Essay Example For Students

Censorship in American Animation Essay Censorship in American animation dates back to the Motion Picture Production Code of 1934, during an effort that preceded the Motion Picture Association of America’s film ratings system. The code was defined as the set of moral guidelines to be followed within the film industry; it ultimately became the only institution governing the production and censorship of most motion pictures produced or distributed within the United States before the film ratings system was implemented. While all motion pictures were subject to censorship under the Motion Picture Production Code, animated shorts and features were carefully inspected due to their impact on children as well as the ability of animators to draw characters in any way or engaging in any act. Perhaps the most famous example of censorship in American animation comes with the â€Å"Censored Eleven,† a group of Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies cartoons that were banned from syndication in the United States in 1968. The United Artists studio, which owned the distribution rights at the time, decided to stop the future broadcast of these eleven specific animated shorts due to their political incorrectness. Because these cartoons were banned for being too offensive for contemporary audiences, they have not been officially broadcast on television since their banning in 1968. This fact alone provides us with understanding the power of censorship. In the instance of the â€Å"Censored Eleven,† racial themes are so essential to these cartoons that no amount of selective editing would make the collection acceptable for syndication, distribution, or broadcast. With this example, we understand that censorship in animation is different than other media due to how selective it is in nature. Censorship in war eras (specifically after or around World War II) was less rampant than in other time periods. Superman could easily get away with fighting the Japanese in 1942 because Fleischer and Famous Studios had gone through great lengths to explain the type of enemy they were and why we must defeat them. This version of Superman as an American super-weapon has actually been quite popular throughout the life of the character, which could be argued as relatively expected. Who better than a truly American role model to show children that the United States can do no wrong? Additionally, there is an interesting commentary on the role of censorship in this instance. Are animated terroristic-like acts and racism suddenly acceptable once the Japanese or Nazis became involved with the affairs of United States citizens? Perhaps censorship serves a fundamental role in the attitudes of Americans by choosing what sentiments to share. The answer to these questions is unfortunately still being written. The Production Code of 1934 required a priori censorship, meaning scripts and storyboards needed to be approved by the censorship authority prior to the finished product being placed on the market. However, in the world of animation, most of the editing and censorship has been post hoc, meaning a finished product being removed from distribution or edited without the consent of its creators. This form of selective censorship brings several moral, ethical, and artistic ambiguities with it and still affects us as Americans today. Censorship in cartoons is sporadic and almost hypocritically in its nature, as seen when comparing the racist nature of Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs (one of the â€Å"Censored Eleven†), with the violence in wartime Superman and the Eleventh Hour. This lack of a uniform standard concerning censorship across the animation industry leads to the spotty and incomplete removal of potentially harmful material. Perhaps the most important thing to note when looking at censorship within the animation industry is the fact that animation is considered in many instances an entertainment form designed specifically for children. Additionally, rarely does an â€Å"Edited for Television† disclaimer preface a content-edited cartoon. This directly relates the hypocritical nature of American censorship in animation; we want to ensure that our kids are safe from questionable material, but we also want to ignore its happening. .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 , .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 .postImageUrl , .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 , .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740:hover , .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740:visited , .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740:active { border:0!important; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740:active , .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740 .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u9620f95da619ea5cdc85d22d3315b740:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Communication Technologies - LAN and Topologies and Data Flow EssayThis also shows a lack of respect for the artists involved in the production of these cartoons and once again brings up the moral ambiguities concerned with censorship. Now, the American animation industry is more about commercialization than characterization, and the art of the animated short has nearly vanished from television in the United States altogether. This is direct evidence that we have moved to developing narrative within full-length animated shows and features. As the political climate in the United States becomes more progressive and moderate, animation censorship has as well. We now rely primarily on a ratings and self-censorship system in which parents are assured that studios will uphold the moral values and standards appropriate for the audience’s respective ages. Why are we still talking about censorship in 21st century America? Perhaps, at least when examining the case of animation, censorship in the Golden Age of animation (and even today) had little to do with the processes surrounding animation itself. As mentioned before, these cartoons were typically edited post hoc, after production was complete; this gives us the notion that someone down the line believed that they were morally and socially acceptable to create. Censorship, because we can now understand its inclinations fully, can be defined more as a reflection of society and what we determine to be acceptable as entertainment. The conversation about censorship, though old, is still relevant and continues today, as our ideas concerning morality and tolerance are constantly changing. Bibliography: Couvares, Francis G. Movie Censorship and American Culture. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1996. Print Heraldson, Donald. Creators of Life: A History of Animation. New York: Drake, 1975. Print. Cohen, Karl F. Forbidden Animation: Censored Cartoons and Blacklisted Animators in America. Jefferson, NC: McFarland , 1997. Print. Yenika-Agbaw, Vivian S., Ruth McKoy Lowery, and Laretta Henderson. Fairy Tales with a Black Consciousness: Essays on Adaptations of Familiar Stories. New York: McFarland , 2013. Print.